Electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation is a type of physical vapour deposition in which a material to be deposited is heated to a temperature at which it evaporates, by bombardment with a beam of electrons.
Thermal evaporation is a common, straightforward means of thin film deposition typically used to deposit metals. Materials are heated, under vacuum, to temperatures at which they evaporate or sublime
Low-temperature evaporation, or LTE, is ideal for deposition of high vapour-pressure materials such as organic compounds used in OLED and photovoltaic technologies.
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In sputtering, deposition material is ejected from a target surface through bombardment by plasma ions. The technique is suited to high melting-point materials and provides excellent coating-substrate adhesion.